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CONTENTS

Sunday, August 8, 2010

LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA

LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA
Locomotion:
*Protozoans are not stremelined to minimize the pressure drag
*Viscous drag is dueto the water molecules attached to the surface
*pressure drag is dueto the difference of pressure between two ends
*Viscous drag is more important for protozoans because of their small size
*Streamlined body has more surface area dueto which more water molecule are attached to surface
Which causes more viscous drag
*The locomotary organells that are usefull for locomotion and feedin in protozoa ---- pseudopodia and
cilia
*Psedopodia are present in the classes rhizopodea and actinopodea of the super class sarcodina
*The flagellate having pseudopodia is ---- Mastigamoeba
*Blunt finger like ,tubular pseudopodia with ecto and endoplasms are---Lobopodia (Amoeba &
Entamoeba)
*Slender filamentous pseudopodia with pointed tips , tapering base to tip ,having branches (sometimes) without the formation of networks and with only ecto plasm are----Filopodia(Euglypha & Lecithium)
*Filamentous ,branched pseudopodia with networks,feeding as primary function ,locomotion as
secondary function are----Reticulopodia or rhizopodia or myxopodia (Foraminiferans---Elphidium &
Globigerina)
*Filamentous pseudopodia in protozoans ------ Reticulopodia & Filopodia
*Filamentous pseudopodia that do not form networks---- Filopodia
*Filamentous pseudopodia that form networks ----- Reticulopodia
*Fine needle like pseudopodia radiating from the surface of the body with central axial rod (which is surrounded by granular and adhesive cytoplasm) and with food collection as primary function are---Axopodia or Actinopodia(Heliozoans –actinosphaerium and Actinophrys , Radiolarians—Collozoum)
*Axoneme(long stiff axial filament ) of flagellum arises from---- basal granule
*Basal granule is derived from---centriole
NUMBER OF FLAGELLA IN DIFFERENT MASTIGOPHORANS
*One ----- Trypanosoma
*Two ------ Euglena and Ceratium
* Four ------- Trichomonas
*Four pairs ------- Giardia
*Many ------ Trichonympha
*The total number of microtubules in flagellum (9+2) is ----- 20
*The total number of microtubules in basal granule is --- 27
*The total number of microtubules in both flagellum and basal granules collectively is--- 29
*The peripheral doublets are surrounded by an outer membranous sheath called ---protoplasmic sheath
* Protoplasmic sheath is the extension of ----- plasmamembrane
*The lateral appendages are ---- Flimmers (5nm thick ,solid) , Mastigonemes (20nm thick ,tubular)
*Basal granule is a cyllindrical body formed by the ----- 9 peripheral triplets
*basal body is connected to theplasma membrane or nucleus by---1 or more rootlets or microtubules or
both
*The structures that can pull the flagellum or cilium or change their orientation are---rootlets
*Unlike pantonematic flagellum pantacronematic flagellum has --- Terminal Filament
*Unlike acronematic flagellum pantonematic flagellum has --- Lateral Appendages
*Unlike anematic flagellum acronematic flagellum has --- Terminalfilament
*Euglena and Astasia ----- stichonematic flagellum
*Peranema and Monas ----- Pantonematic flagellum
*Chlamydomonas and Polytoma ---- acronematic flagellum
*Urcoelus ----- Pantacronematic flagellum
*Chilomonas and Cryptomonas ----- Anematic flagellum
*Holotrich (cilia all over the body , primitive organisms) --- Paramecium
*Peritrich (cilia confined to specific regions ,advanced organisms) --Vorticella (have peristomial cilia only)
*Kinety --- Longitudinal row of kinetosome +Kinetodesmos(kinetodesmal fibrils)+kinetodesmata
*Motorium is located at -- Cytopharynx
*the movement of cilia is controlled and co-ordinated by -- Neuromotor system
*Undular movement is possible by -- Flagella
*Pendular movement is possible by -- Cilia
*Undulating membranes and cirri (compound ciliary organelles) are formed by -- Cilia
*Flagella and Cilia -- Undulopodia (Hyman) as they cause progression by beating
*a flagellum pushes the fluid medium at right angles to the surface of its attachment
*The sites for ATPase activity ---- Dynein arms
*Undulations from base to tip --- Pushing force(propeller of a boat)
*undulations from tip to base ---- Pulling force(propeller of a aeroplane)
*if the flagellum bends to one side and shows a wave like movement from the base to tip,the organism moves laterally in the opposite direction.
*When the undulations are spiral ,they cause rotation of the organism in the opposite direction which is called gyration.
Reproduction:
*The cilate that can perform longitudinal binaryfission is -- Vorticella
*cytostome is funnel like and cytopharynx(gullet) is flask like
*A photoreceptor that is associated with flagellum in Euglena ---Paraflagellar body
*The structure close to cytopharynx is --- Stigma
*Binaryfission also occurs in ---Encysted form
*after the completion of the longitudinal binaryfission in euglena the two old flagella are retained by one daughter individual and the two new flagella are formed afresh in another daughter individual.
*oralgroove in Paramecium ---- Vestibule +buccal cavity
*during transverse binaryfission in Paramecium oralgroove dissapers at the beginning and reappears after karyokinesis.
*Proter retains the cytopharynx of the parent and opisth forms a new one.

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