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CONTENTS

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

TYPES OF CARTILAGES AND STRUCTURE OF COMPACT BONE

TYPES OF CARTILAGES :
There are three types of cartilages ; 1) Hyaline Cartilage 2) Elastic cartilage 3) Fibrous cartilage
1) Hyaline Cartilage :
i.It is bluish-white in colour
ii.It is transluscent
iii.Collagen fibre are present
iv.Perichondrium is present except in articular cartilage , epiphysial plates ans costal cartilages
v.This is weakest cartilage
Eg; Articilar cartilages , Costal cartilages ,walls of nose etc
2) Elastic cartilage:
i. Matrix has more elastic fibres than collagen fibres
ii. It is yellowish in colour
iii. Perichondrium is present
Eg; Ear pinna , Eustachian tube and Epiglottis
3) Fibrous cartilage:
i. Its matrix contains dense network of collagen fibres
ii. Perichondrium is absent
iii. Strongest cartilage
Eg; Intervertibral discs , Pubicsymphysis
DETAILED ACCOUNT OF COMPACT BONE :
1. It has dense matrix
2. Diaphysis of long bones is compact bone
3. It is lined by edosteum on the internal surface and lined by periosteum on external surface
4. In the matrix co9llagen fibres are arranged in lamellae
5. Haversian systems are present between outer and inner circumferential lamellae
HAVESIAN SYSTEM:-
6. Each havrsian system consists of haversian canal
7. Haversian canal is surrounded by concentric lamellae
8. Lacunae containing osteocytes found between lamellae
9. Each lacuna encloses ine osteocyte
10. Volkman’s canal connects the two adjacent haversian canals
11. Blood vessels , lymph vessels and nerves enter into havesian canals
12. havesian system is also called “Osteon”
CHEMICAL COMPOSTION :
• Organic Composition - 35%
• Inorganic composition - 65%
• The major organic substance is collagen
• The major mineral is calcium phosphate
• Calcium phosphate is present in the form of hydroxyl apatite crystals - Ca10 (PO4)(OH)2

ANIMAL ORGANIZATION-EAMCET

INTRODUCTION
LEVEL - I
1.The simplest animal like organisms that exhibit protoplasmic grade of organization are the
1) unicellular protozoans
2) multi cellular parazoans
3) multi cellular eumetazoans
4) All eukaryotic organisms
2.Division of labour at a single cell level is seen in
1) Sponges 2) cnidarians
3) protozoans 4) chordates
3.The lowest level of organization in metazoans is
1) protoplasmic grade of organization
2) cellular grade of organization
3) tissue grade of organization
4) organ system grade of organization
4.Cellular grade of organization is seen in
1) sponges 2) protozoans
3) cnidarians 4) flatworms
5.Division of labour is seen among the cells in
1) protozoans 2) sponges
3) cnidarians 4) arthropods
6.Cells absent in sponges are
1) choanocytes, thesocytes, porocytes
2) nerve cells, sensory cells
3) pinacocytes, choanocytes
4) myocytes, sclerocytes
7.Multicellular animals without true tissues are
1) sponges 2) cnidarians
3) arthropods 4) annelids
8.Cells demonstrate division of labour but notstrongly associated to perform a specific
collective function in
1) cellular grade of organization
2) subcellular grade of organization
3) tissue grade of organization
4) organ system grade of organization
9.Cells are aggregated into tissues but not assembled into organs in
1) Subcellular grade of organization
2) Diploblastic organization
3) Triploblastic organization
4) Cellular grade of organization
10.Highly specialized sensory cells and nerve cells which bring about higher level of coordination and integration is seen in
1) cellular grade of organization
2) tissue grade of organization
3) diploblastic grade of organization
4) triploblastic grade of organization
11.The first key transition in the animal body plan is the
1) evolution of bilateral symmetry
2) cephalization
3) development of coelom
4) evolution of tissues
12.The second key transition in the animal body plan is the
1) evolution of biradial symmetry
2) evolution of bilateral symmetry
3) development of coelom
4) evolution of spherical symmetry
13.Functional isolation of cells is seen in
1) subcellular level of organization
2) cellular level of organization
3) tissue level of organization
4) organs system level of organization
14.Diploblastic animals show
1) cellular grade of organization
2) protoplasmic grade of organization
3) tissue grade of organization
4) organ system grade of organization
15.Nerve cells and sensory cells first time formed in
1) Cellular grade of organization
2) Subcellular grade of organization
3) Diploblastic organization
4) Triploblastic organization
16.Animals exhibiting tissue grade of organization do not have
1) nerve cells 2) mesoglea
3) mesoderm 4) mesenteries
17.Mesoderm is formed in
1) Tissue grade of organization
2) Cellular grade of organization
3) Organ - system grade of organization
4) Sub cellular grade of organization
18.Evolution of this germlayer resulted in the structural complexity in organization
1) ectoderm 2) endoderm
3) mesoderm 4) gastrodermis
19.Acellular organisms have
1) protoplasmic grade of organization
2) cellular grade of organization
3) tissue grade of organization
4) organ system grade of organization
20).This layer is not present in all multicellular animals
1) Ectoderm 2) Mesoderm
3) Endoderm 4) Both 1 and 3
21).Sponges lack
1) Nerve cells 2) Sensory cells
3) Mesoderm 4) All the above
22)Which one of the following is very closely related to triploblastic animals?
1) They have three layers in the body wall
2) They have three primary germ layers
3) They have nerve cells and sensory cells
4) They show radial symmetry

LEVEL - II
NOTE: Follow the options for Statement(S) and Reason(R) Type questions
1) Both S and R are correct R is the correct
explanation of S
2) Both S and R are correct but R is not
correct explanation of S
3) S is correct, but R is not correct
4) Both S and R are not correct
23).(S): In the cellular level of organization, the cells are functionally isolated
(R): Nerve cells and sensory cells are absent
24).(S): Cnidarians are called diploblastic animals
(R): They exhibit radial symmetry mainly.
25).(S):Triploblastic animals lead a more efficient way of life
(R):They have highly specialized sensory cells and nerve cells bringing higher level of coordination of different organs and organ systems
26).Only cellular level of organization is found in
1) Cnidarians 2) Sponges
3) Flatworms 4) Protozoans
27).The type of cells that appeared first time in diploblastic animals are
1).Choanocytes 2).Nerve cells
3). Gametes 4). Totipotent cells
28.Homaxial apolar symmetry is
1) Spherical symmetry
2) Radial symmetry
3) Biradial symmetry
4) Pentaradial symmetry
29.These forms are best suited for floating and
rolling
1) Spherical symmetrical
2) Radial symmetrical
3) Biradial symmetrical
4)Bilateral symmetrical
30.This type of symmetry is rare
1) Homoxial apolar symmetry
2) Monaxial heteropolar symmetry
3) Biradial symmetry
4) Bilateral symmetry
31.Following are statements regarding spherical symmetrical animals
1)They are spherical in shape
2)Organisms exhibiting spherical symmetry are rare
3) Generally they are terrestrial
4)They have only dorsal and ventral surface
Which of the above correct
1) 1 & 2 2) 2 & 3
3) 1 & 3 4) 1, 2 and 3
32.The type of symmetry in which body parts are arranged in a radiating fashion and they are ball like in form
1) Spherical symmetry
2) Radial symmetry
3) Asymmetry
4) Biradial symmetry
33.The symmetry that lacks anterior and posterior sides and has no polarity at all is called
1) Symmetrogenic 2) Spherical
3) Radial 4) Biradial
34.Statement (S) :In Heliozoans, symmetry is spherical and their pseudopodia are mainly used for food collection
Reason (R) : Heliozoans are planktonic animals
RADIAL SYMMETRY
LEVEL - I
35. In this type of symmetry the animals acquired oral & aboral ends first
1) Spherical 2) Radial
3) Biradial 4) Bilateral
36. Which of the following exhibit two different types of symmetries in their life cycles
1) Starfishes
2) Heliozoans & radiolarians
3) Earthworms & insects
4) All invertebrates
37Symmetry advantage to sessile organisms is
1) spherical symmetry 2) asymmetry
3) radial symmetry 4) bilateral symmetry
38.Sensory and feeding structures are uniformly distributed around the mouth is seen in
1) Spherically symmetrical animals
2) Radially symmetrical animals
3) Bilaterally symmetrical animals
4) Asymmetrical animals
39.Monaxial heteropolar symmetry
1) Spherical symmetry 2) Radial symmetry
3) Biradial symmetry 4) Bilateral symmetry
40.Animals which show primary radial symmetry, secondary radial symmetry respectively are
1) jelly fishes and ctenophores
2) sea anemones and ctenophores
3) cnidarians and echinoderms
4) gastropods and echinoderms
41.In ctenophores most of thebody parts are radially arranged but paired parts are the
1) tentacles 2) siphonoglyphs
3) statocysts 4) oral arms
42.The animals in which the principal axis of symmetry changes from the median sagittal plane to oral - aboral axis during their development is
1) Jelly fishes 2) Ctenophores
3) Echinoderms 4) Heliozonas
43.In cnidarians and ctenophores the oroaboral axis is
1) apolar 2) heteropolar
3) bipolar 4) multipolar
44.Biradial symmetry of Sea anemones has been derived from
1) Radial symmetry
2) Pentamerous radial symmetry
3) Bilateral symmetry
4) Spherical symmetry
45.Sea anemones with one siphonoglyph exhibit
1) Bilateral symmetry 2) Radial symmetry
3) Spherical symmetry 4) Biradial symmetry
46.Which of the symmetry is an advatage to sessile or slow moving or planktonic organisms
1) Spherical symmetry
2) Radial symmetry
3) Bilateral symmetry
4) Biradial symmetry
47.The principal axis is oral aboral axis in
1) Monaxial heteropolar symmetry
2) Homaxial apolar symmetry
3) Biradial symmetry
4) Bilateral symmetry
48.Homaxial Apolar symmetry is seen in
1) Hydrozoans 2) Heliozoans
3) Ctenophores 4) Schyphozoans
49.Monaxial Heteropolar symmetry is found in
1) Some sponges and most of cnidarians
1) Most of sponges and few cnidarians
3) All sponges and cnidarians
4) All sponges but no cnidarians
50.Pentamarous radial symmetry is seen in
1)Adult echinodermates.
2) Larval echinodermates.
3) Ctenophores 4) Coelenterats
51.Five planes of symmetry can be seen in
1) Echinodermate larvae
2) Adult echinoderms
3) Sea anemones 4) Adult gastropods
52.Animals which show primary radial symmetry, secondary radial symmetry respectively are
1) Jelly fishes and ctenophores
2) Sea anemones and ctenophores
3) Cnidarians and echinoderms
4) Gastropods and echinoderms
53.Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical, adults are pentamerous radially symmetrical in
1) Anthozoans 2) Ctenophores
3) Jelly fishes 4) Echinoderms
54.In which of the following Asymmetary is seen
1) Echinodermate larvae
2) Adult echinoderms
3) Sea anemones 4) Adult gastropods

LEVEL- II
55.(S): Hydra shows radial symmetry.
(R): Hydra can be cut into identical halves along any plane passing through the centre
1)Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation for A
2) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation for A
3) A is true but R is false
4) A is false and R also false
56.Read the following and select the correct statement
I) Radially symmetrical animal can be cut into two antimeres along any plane passing through oro-aboral axis
II) The body of radially symmetrical animal may be elongated or umberlla shaped
III) One end of radially symmetrical body is oral and the other is aboral
1) I and III 2) II and III
3) I and II 4) I, II and III


Biradial symmetry
LEVEL - I
57.The plane passing at right angle to the
sagittal axis is called
1) Longitudinal 2) Transverse
3) Frontal 4) Dorso-ventral
58.Sea anemones with two siphonoglyphs exhibit
1) Bilateral symmetry 2) Radial symmetry
2) Spherical symmetry 4) Biradial symmetry
59.The long axis and the short axis of the mouths of sea anemones are
1) heteropolar 2) bipolar
3) apolar 4) multipolar
60.Biradial symmetry is seen in
1) Scyphozoans 2) Heliozoans
3) Ctenophores 4) Annelids
61.Two planes of symmetry can be seen in
1) Hydrozoans, and scyphozoans
2) Heliozoans and radiolarians
3) Ctenophores and Anthozoans
4) All cnidarians
62.In most of anthozoans the principal axis is
1) oro - aboral axis 2) median sagittal axis
3) transverse axis 4) antero posterior axis
63.Read the following:
i) Transverse plane of biradially symmetrical animals is short axis.
ii) A sea anemone can be cut into equal halves passing through frontal and transverse planes.
iii) Biradially symmetrical animals are intermediate between radial and bilateral groups choose the wrong option(s)
1) i only 2) i & iii
3) ii only 4) ii & iii
LEVEL - II
64.Statement (A) : Antimeres on either side of the plane are different from
antimeres on either side of the other plane in biradial symmetry
Reason (R ) : Body parts in the animals with biradial symmetry are arranged not only radially but also in pairs
1)Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation for A
2) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation for A
3) A is true but R is false
4) A is false and R also false
65.It is considered that due to the elongation of mouth along with associated structures radial symmetry has given rise to
1) Bilateral symmetry
2) Biradial symmetry
3) Trimerous radial symmetry
4) Pentamerous radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry
LEVEL - I
66.The symmetry with anterior, posterior
and dorsal and ventral sides is
1) Biradial 2) Bilateral
3) Radial 4) Spherical
67.Triploblastic phylum which does not show bilateral symmetry in adult stages is
1) Mollusca 2) Arthropoda
3) Cnidaria 4) Echinodermata
68.Which of the following animals move primarily in one direction
1) Spherical symmetrical animals
2) Radial symmetrical animals
3) Bilateral symmetrical animals
4) Biradial symmetrical animals
69.Cephalization is associated with
1) biradial symmetry 2) bilateral symmetry
3) pentamerous radial symmetry
4) radial symmetry
70.The symmetry in fish is
1) Spherical 2) Radial
3) Bilateral 4) Biradial
71.The plane passing from the middorsal line to midventral line through the principal axis is
1).Sagittal axis 2).Frontal plane 3).Transverse 4).Longitudinal
72.In bilaterally symmetrical animals the principal axis, sagittal axis and the transverse axis respectively are
1) heteropolar, heteropolar and apolar
2) heteropolar , apolar and heteropolar
3) apolar , heteropolar and apolar
4) heteropolar, apolar and apolar
73 Which of the following are secondarily asymmetrical
1) All sponges 2) Amoeba
3) Gastropods 4) Echinoderms
74.Which one of the following is the major advancement in animal evolution
1) Appearance of bilateral symmetry
2) Formation of coelom
3) Developemt of mouth
4) Development of brain
75.Protozoan which exhibits bilateral symmetry is
1) Amoeba 2) Actinophrys
3) Acanthometra 4) Giardia
76.Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical, adults are pentamerous radially symmetrical in
1) Anthozoans 2) Ctenophores
3)Jelly fishes 4)Echinoderms
77.The plane that divides bilaterally symmetricalanimal into right and left halves is
1) transverse plane 2) sagittal plane
3) frontal plane 4) oblique plane
78.Bilateral symmetry is found in : [ 2004 ]
1) Clathrina 2) Leucosolenia 3) Ophiopleuteus 4) Schypha
79.In understanding different types of symmetry, the term used as principal axis means[ 2007]
(1) An imaginary straight line joining two opposite points at the ends.
(2) An imaginary straight line joining the mid pointat one end and the mid point at the opposite end
(3)A flat area that runs through any axis.
(4)An animal having its body parts arranged in such a manner to exhibit symmetry.
80.Which among the following are bisected into two equal halves passing through the median sagittal plane of earthworm
1) Mouth, male and female genital openings
2) Spermathecal openings, female genital opening and dorsal pores
3) Mouth, female genital opening and dorsal pores
4) Nephridiopores, male and female genital openings
81.Except in Gastropods and Echinoderms,bilateral symmetry is essentially exhibited by
1) Diploblastic animals 2) Triploblastic animals
3) Stalked animals 4) Chordates
82.The symmetry in which definite dorsal, ventral and lateral sides have developed is
1) Bilateral 2) Biradial
3) Pentaradial 4) All the three
83.Bilateral symmetry of an animal is exhibited from the stage of
1) Oocyte 2) Ovum
3) Zygote 4) Gastrula
84.The grade that includes all the bilaterally symmetrical phyla is
1) Diploblastica 2) Schizocoelomata
3) Triploblastica 4) None of these
85.Body differentiation into head, concentration of nervous tissue into brain are the consequences of the symmetry called
1) Biradial 2) Bilateral
3) Radial 4) All the three
86. Rapid locomotory movements are a capability of the group
1) Bilateria 2) Protista
3) Schizocoelomata 4) Radiata
87. Perfect symmetry is found in the group
1) Spherical 2) Radial
3) Bilateral 4) None

SYMMETRY
LEVEL - II
NOTE: Follow the options for Statement(S) and Reason(R) Type questions
1) Both S and R are correct R is the correct
explanation of S
2) Both S and R are correct but R is not
correct explanation of S
3) S is correct, but R is not correct
4) Both S and R are not correct

88.Statement(S):Asymmetrical snails are included under grade bilateria
Reason(R): Symmetry of an animal is determined by the symmetry of its embryonic stage, irrespective of its symmetry in the adult stages.
89.Statement (S): A free -moving bilaterally symmetrical metazoan has the advantages of the surrounding becoming aware of conditions in the surroundings during its locomotion.Reason(
R): These animals exhibit diploblastic condition
90). (S): No animal exhibits perfect symmetry.
(R): All animals are asymmetrical in their adult stages.
91). (S): Generally, spherically symmetrical animals are planktonic in habit .
(R): They are spherical in shape and are drifted by water currents easily.
92). (S): Hydra shows radial symmetry.
(R): Hydra can be cut into identical halves along any plane passing through the centre
93). (S): In radiata, all organs are arranged around the oro-aboral axis.
(R): These animals cannot be cut into two antimeres only in longitudinal plane.
94). (S): Triploblastic animals exhibit both biradial and bilateral symmetry
(R): Biradially symmetrical animals developed the third germ layer, mesoderm
95) (S): Sea anemones exhibit biradial symmetry.
(R): They can be cut into two antimeres along oro-aboral axis
96). (S): Adult echinoderms exhibit pentaradial symmetry.
(R): Bilaterally symmetrical, free swimming larval forms secondarily develop into pentaradial, adults.
97). (S):Bilaterally symmetrical animals are far more successful than animals having other types of symmetry.
(R): Bilaterally symmetrical animals are triploblastic .
98). (S):Bilaterally symmetrical animals can be cut into two antimeres in only median sagittal plane.
(R): All organs are arranged in pairs, equidistantly on either side of median sagittal plane.
99). S : Radially symmetrical animals can interact with their environment equally in all directions
R : In radially symmetrical animals the sensory and feeding structures are uniformly distributed around the bodies
100) S : Bilaterally symmetrical animals move from place to place more efficiently and more efficient in seeking food
R : Most of the bilaterally symmetrial animals exhibit cephalization

Saturday, August 21, 2010

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Friday, August 20, 2010

V.V.V.IMPORTANT VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR QUARTERLY

1.What is tautonymy? Give one example
A:The practice of naming the animals,in which the generic and the specific names are same. Eg:- Naja naja
2.Define the term species
A:Species is an interbreeding group of similar individuals producing fertile offspring,sharing a common genepool.
3.What is hyperparasite?
A:A parasite that lives on another parasite Eg: Nosema notabilis lives as parasite on Sphaerophora which is a parasite on toadfish
4.Define incubationperiod
A:The time interval between the entry of sporozoites into the body and the onset of malarial fever is called incubation period
5.What is meant by ovoviviparity?
A:The the process of production of eggs in which the eggs are hatched within the body of female without obtaining food from it.
6.What is meant by nocturnalperiodicity?
A:In human being the microfilaria larvae move to the peripheral blood vessels from deeper bloodvessels during nights between 10 pm and 4 am.This is called nocturnal periodicity
7.Define kinety
A:A longitudinal row of Kinetosomes ,kinetodesmos and kinetodesmata are together called kinety
8.Distinguish between synchronous and metachronous rhythms in Paramecium
A:Synchronous rhythm :- Simultaneous beating of transverse row of cilia
Metachronous rhythm:- Beating of longitudinal cilia one after another

9.What is plasmotomy?
A:It is a division of multinucleate protozoan into multinucleate daughter individuals by cytoplasmic division but without nuclear division.
10.Which symmetry is known as homaxial apolarsymmetry?Give one example
A:Spherical symmetry is known as homaxial apolarsymmetry Eg:-Heliozoans
11.Which symmetry is known as monoaxial heteropolarsymmetry?Give one example
A:Radial symmetry is called monoaxial heteropolarsymmetry Eg:-Hydra12.What is pseudocoelomate condition?Name the major pseudocoelomate phylum
A:The coelom which is neither formed in the mesoderm nor is lined by mesodermal peritonium Eg:-Phylum Nematoda
13.What is transitional epithelium? What is its significance?
A:The epithelium which is specialized to withstand a greater degree of stretch. The transitional epithelium of undistended unrinary bladder has about 4 or 5 layers ,when the bladder is full it appears to be with 2 or 3 layers thick

LONGITUDINAL BINARYFISSION IN EUGLENA

*Binaryfission :- The division of parent individual into two daughter individuals is called binary fission
Longitudinal Binaryfission In Euglena :
*It occurs in favourable conditions
*First karyokinesis takes place
*During karyokinesis nucleus is divided by mitosis
*Cytokinesis follows karyokinesis
*During cytokinesis a longitudinal furrow is formed
*The longitudinal furrow extends to posterior end to divide the euglena into two daughter individuals
*Longitudinal binaryfission in euglena is also called symmetrogenis binaryfission
*Kinety :- kineto some ,kinetodesmos and kinetodesmata are collectively called kinety
*Proter :- The young individual that is formed from anterior region of paramecium is called proter
*Opisth :- The young individual that is formed from posterior region of paramecium is called opisth
*Clone :- A group of youn individuals that are formed by repeated binaryfisions from a paramecium is called clone

AMOEBOID LOCOMOTION – SOL-GEL THEORY

*It is also called change of viscosity theory
*It was advocated by Hyman
*It was confirned by Pantin and Mast
*Amoeba attaches to the substratum
*Ectoplasm is formed as hyaline cap at advancing end
*A point of weaknes is formed behind hyaline cap at advancing end
*Plasmasol flows in to advancing end
*Plasma sol is converted in to plasmagel at advancing end by losing water , this zone is called zone of gelation
*Plasmagel gel flows back to uroid end
*Plasma gel is converted into plasma sol by gaining water at uroid end , this zone is called zone of solation
*The rate of gelation and solation is same
*As plasma sol flows towards advancing end the pesupodium extends further
*Amoeba moves on the direction of pseudopodium

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

V.V.V.IMPORTANT SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR QUARTERLY

THE STRUCTURE OF THE MATURE PROGLATID OF TAPE WORM
1.In tape worm the mature proglatid consists of male and female reproductive systems
2.In male reproductive system the following organs are present :-
a)Testes which are scattered in parenchyma
b)Vas efferens
c)Vas differens
d)Copulatory structure called cirrus
e)Genital atrium
3.In female reproductive system following organs are present:-
a)A large bilobed ovary
b)An isthmus which connects the two lobes of the ovary
c)Oviduct which opens into ootype
d)Ootype which is surrounded by mehlisglands
e)Vitelline gland
f)Vagina
g)Uterus
4.Excretory canals and nervecords are present
5.Flamecells open into excretory canals
THE STRUCTURE OF MICROFILARIA LARVA
1.Microfilaria larva is the infective stage of Wuchereria to mosquito
2.It is surrounded by cuticle
3.The larval surface is covered by flattened epidermal cells
4.An oral stylet is present at anterior end
5.The other important parts of microfilaria are :-
a)Nerve ring
b)Excretory pore
c)Rennete cell
d)Four large germinal cells
e)Future analpore
f)A darkly stained innercellmass
g)Somatic cellmas
DIFFEREN TYPES OF FLAGELLA IN PROTOZOANS
There are five different types of flagellae in protozoans ,they are :-
1.Stichonematic : One row of lateral appendages are present Eg : Euglena
2.Pantonematic : Two or more rows of lateral appendages are present Eg : Monas
3.Acronematic : Lateral appengages are absent , a terminal filament is present
Eg : Chlamidomonas
4.Pantacronematic : Two or more rows of lateral appendages andterminalfilament are present Eg : Urceolus
5.Anematic : Lateral appendages and terminal filament are absent
Eg : Chilomonas

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

TAENIA SOLIUM LIFE CYCLE

LIFECYCLE OF TAENIA IN HUMAN :
1.Fertilization takes place in ootype
2.After fertilization zygote is formed
3.Zygote ,vitelline cell and vitelline shell are together called capsule
4.Many capsules roll into uterus
5.Rest of the embryonic development takes place in the uterus
6.Zygote is divided into two unequal cells called megamere and embryonic cell
7.Embryoinc cell divides into mesomeres and micromeres
8.Mesomeres develop into inner embryonic membrane
9.Megameres develop into outer embryonic membrane
10.Micromeres form hexacanth
11.Inner embryonic membrane ,outerembryonic membrane and hexacanth are together called hexacanth larva or oncosphere
12.Gravidproglatids containing oncospheres pass out through faeces
13.Oncosphere is the infective stage to pig
LIFECYCLE OF TAENIA IN PIG;
1.When pig consumes the faeces containing gravidproglatids ,oncospheres in gravid proglatids enter into the stomach of pig
2.The outer and inner embryonic membranes are dissolved in the intestine and hexacanth larvae are released
3.Hexacanth larvae are attached to the wall of the intestine
4.Hexacanth larvae penetrate the intestine wall and reach the liver
5.Hexacanth larvae reach the heart from the liver
6.From heart hexacanth reach the skeletal muscles of pig
7.In skeletal muscles hexacanth loses its hooks and develop into cysticercus cellulosae.
8.The pork containing cysticercus cellulosae is called measly pork
9.When man consumes measly pork cysticercus enters into man and develops into an adult
10.The infective stage of taenia to man is cycticercus cellulosa

Monday, August 16, 2010

LIFECYCLE OF PLASMODIUM IN MOSQUITO

PLASMODIUM LIFECYCLE IN MOSQUITO (CYCLE OF ROSS);
1.After repeated erythrocytic lifecycles in man the merozoite become inactive and transformed into gametocytes.
2.There are two types of gametocytes ,a)Macrogametocytes
b)Microgametocytes
3.Macrogametocytes are called female gametocytes and Microgametocytes are called male gametocytes.
4.The further development of the gametocytes needs female anopheles mosquito.
5.When the female anopheles mosquito bites a malaria patient the male and female gametocytes enter into the crop of mosquito
6.Male gametocytes develop into male gametes and female gametocytes into female gametes.
7.The male and female gametes are fused to form a zygote
8.Intially the zygote is stationary later it becomes motile
9.The motile zygote is called ookinete
10.The ookinete enters into the crop wall of mosquito
11. In the crop wall it gets encysted
12.The encysted zygote is called oocyst
13.In oocyst it enlarges and undergoes multiplications
14.Due to multiplications sporoblasts are formed
15.The cyst containing sporoblasts is called sporocysts
16.Sporoblasts develop into sporozoites
17.Sporozoites released from sporocyst and reach salivary glands
18.When this mosquito with sporozoites in its salivary glands bites a man ,the sporozoites enter into man and life cycle stars in man

LIFECYCLE OF PLASMODIUM IN MAN

PLASMODIUM LIFECYCLE IN MAN ;1.Plasmodium completes its life cycle in two hosts
2.female anopheles mosquito is definitive host , man is intermediate host
3.In man asexual lifecycle occurs
4.In man plasmodium completes its lifecycle in two stages. They are
a)Exoerythrocytic stage b) Erythrocytic stage
EXOERYTHROCYTIC STAGE: In this stage two generations are formed. They are preerythrocytic generations and exoerythrocytic generations
PREERYTHROCYTIC GENERATIONS :
1.When mosquito bite humanbeing the sporozoite stage of plasmodium enters into man
2.The sporozoite stage is infective stage of plasmodium to man
3.Sporozoites enters into liver cells from blood stream
4.After entering into the liver cells sporozoites are transformed into trophozoites in livercells
5.The nucleus of the trophozoite undergoes multiplications to become schizont
6.Within 8 days,cytoplasm divides and large number of cryptozoites are released into the liver sinusoids
7.These cryptozoites may either enter into RBC or into another livercells.
EXOERYTHROCYTIC GENERATIONS:
1.When the cryptozoites enter into livercells ,they transform into trophozoites in livercells
2.The nucleus of the trophozoite divides several times and become a multinucleate schizont
3.Then cytoplasm divides and large number of metacryptozoites are released into the sinusoids of liver
4.Two types of metacryptozoits are present ,they are a)Macrometacryptozoites and b)Micrometacryptozoites.
5.Macrometacryptomerozoite enter into fresh liver cells and micrometacryptozoites into RBC
ERYTHROCYTIC STAGE (GOLGI CYCLE) :
1.Micrometacryptozoites or cryptozoites enter into RBC and become trophozoites
2.The vacuole of the trophozoite increases in size and pushes the cytoplasm and nucleus to periphery
3.In this stage the parasite appears like a ring hence it is called signet ring stage
4.After signet ring stage plasmodium develops pseudopodia and appears like amoeba , hence this stage is called amoeboid stage
5.Later amoeboid stage develops into schizont
6.Again in this schizont multiplications take place and merozoites are formed
7.Merozoites are released from RBC along with haemozoin granules.
8.Due to this haemozoin granules the symptoms of malaria are seen

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

SYMMETRY

Asymmetry :
The organisms that lack a particular form or geometrical arrangement of parts and cannot be divided into mirror image halves by any plane are kinown asymmetrical organisms. This phenomenon is called asymmetry. Eg :- Most of the sponges and Amoeba
Spherical symmetry :
1.Body is sphere shaped 2.This symmetry is also called Homaxial apolar symmetry
3.all axes are equal 4.Poles are absent 5.This is suitable for floating and rolling
6.This is rare symmetry Eg :- Heliozoans and Radiolarians
Radial symmetry :
1.The body is cylindrical or Vase-like or Umbrella shaped
2.This symmetry is also called Monaxial heteropolar symmetry 3. Principal axis is oro-aboral axis
4.Poles are different 5.Various body parts are arranged around the principal axis
Eg:- Hydra , Jellyfish
Biradial symmetry :
1.Body is cylindrical
2.Oro-aboral axis is principal axis , along with this long axis and short axis are present
3.Two planes are present 4.Some structures are paired ,some are radially arranged
Eg :- Anthozoans (Sea anemone) , Ctenophores
Bilateral symmetry :
1.Principal and Saggital axis are heteropolar
2.Only median saggital plane is present
3.The appearance of bilateral symmetry was a major advancement in animal evolution
4.Bilateralsymmetry leads to cephalization
5.The organisms exhibiting bilateralsymmetry show quick responses to the external stimuli
Eg :-Triploblastic phyla
LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA
CONJUGATION IN VORTICELLA

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

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CONJUGATION IN VORTICELLA

CONJUGATION IN VORTICELLA:
conjugation:-The temporary pairing of two individuals of different mating types for the purpose of exchange of nuclear material is called conjugation.
1.Unfavourable conditions induce conju gation in vorticella
2.Before conjugation Vorticella undergoes longitudinal binaryfission
3. Longitudinal binaryfission in vorticella results in two unequal individuals
4.The larger one is called macroconjugant ,the smaller one is called microconjugant
5.Macroconjugant is stationary where as microconjugant is motile
6.Microconjugant fuses with the macroconjugant of different mating type
7.The macronuclei of macroconjugant and microconjugant disintegrate
8.The micronucleus of macroconjugant undergoes meosis(meosis-I and meosis-II) and is divided into four nuclei
9. The micronucleus of microconjugant undergoes meosis(meosis-I and meosis-II) ,one mitosis divided and divided into eight nuclei
10.Among the four nuclei of the macroconjugant three are disappeared
11. Among the eight nuclei of the microconjugant seven are disappeared
12.The remaining nucleus of each conjugant divides into two unequal nuclei
13.The smaller nucleus is malepronucleus and larger is femalepronucleus
14.The malepronucleus of the microconjugant enters into the macroconjugant and fuses with the female pronucleus of the macroconjugant
15.The cytoplasm of microconjugant and macroconjugant are also unified along with the pronuclei,this is called amphimixis
16.The nucleus that is formed due to the amphimixis is called synkaryon
17.The macroconjugant along with synkaryon is called zygote
18.The synkaryon of the zygote undergoes three series of successive mitotic divisions to form eight nuclei
19.Of the eight nuclei seven become macro nuclei and one become micronuclei
20.The zygote with seven maro and one micro nuclei undergoes a series of three successive post conjugationfissions to form seven daughter vorticellae.

Monday, August 9, 2010

MALARIA - VIDEO (LIFE CYCLE IN MAN)-1

video

MALARIA - VIDEO (LIFE CYCLE IN MOSQUITO)-2

video

FUNCTION OF HEART

video

EXCRETORY SYTEM


Excretory/Urinary System
As animals perform their various metabolic processes, protein and nucleic acid, both of which contain nitrogen, are broken down. While some of the nitrogen is used to manufacture new nitrogen-containing molecules, much of it cannot be used for this purpose and must be disposed of as waste. Typically, the first nitrogen-containing molecule that forms is ammonia (NH3, which is very water-soluble, forming NH4OH, a strong base. In some way, this ammonia must be gotten rid of before it raises the pH of the body fluids. Because ammonia is so water-soluble, aquatic animals often can get rid of it just by diffusion into the surrounding water. That’s one reason why the water in your aquarium gets “bad” and needs to be changed, and why not changing the water could kill the fish. However, ammonia doesn’t readily go from body fluids into air, so terrestrial animals need other ways of getting rid of nitrogenous wastes.
The two most common substances used by terrestrial animals to get rid of excess nitrogen are urea and uric acid. Many animal species that aren’t terribly concerned about water-loss, including humans, convert the ammonia to urea, which is water-soluble and excreted in a water-based solution. Other organisms such as birds, insects, or lizards, especially if they live in an arid area, must conserve water whenever possible, thus convert the NH3 to uric acid. Uric acid is not water-soluble, thus can be excreted with little, if any, water with it. This is the white goo in bird droppings. While the major portion of human nitrogenous waste is in the form of urea, humans typically excrete some uric acid, too. Uric acid is another kind of purine like the adenine and guanine in our DNA (structure to the right).
Gout is a disorder in which humans start to accumulate more than the usual amount of uric acid (caused by either the body manufacturing excess uric acid or the kidneys not excreting enough of it) and since it’s not water-soluble, it gets stored in the body, frequently in toe joints, causing pain and deformation of the joints involved as well as the formation of kidney stones. Traditionally, people who had gout were put on diets low in purines to try to help alleviate the condition, but according to the Merck Manual, now these people are doped up with drugs rather than given nutritional counseling: [“Drugs are so effective in lowering the serum urate concentration that rigid restrictions of the purine content of the diet usually is unnecessary.”]. Typically, gout is treated with colchicine, a deadly poison (see further notes below)! Caffeine and its relatives, theobromine (in cocoa), and theophylline (in tea) are classified as xanthines (a subgroup within the purines), thus it would make sense that people with gout should be counseled to avoid coffee, tea, and chocolate.
Some insects, notably blowfly larvae (larvae of those shiny green or blue flies) excrete their nitrogenous wastes as allantoin, another purine. Allantoin is known to be a “cell-proliferant,” thus is used to help wounds to heal. For hundreds of years, people have recognized that the presence of blowfly larvae in a gangrenous wound actually helped it to heal better. From about the turn of the century until the invention of a lot of synthetic drugs, blowfly larvae were raised aseptically, and used to treat severe wounds. With the increase in availability of chemicals after World War II, the use of blowfly larvae declined, but I’ve heard of several cases lately where, for some reason, this treatment was necessary and/or preferred over synthetic drugs. It has been found that the fly larvae only eat dead, gangrenous tissue, leaving the live, healthy tissue, and since their nitrogenous waste is allantoin, that stimulates the wound to heal, usually with less scaring. In this procedure, small, sterile larvae are introduced into the wound and, if needed, traded for other small ones when they get big.
We excrete nitrogenous wastes via our kidneys. Our kidneys are located on either side of the spine, just up under the bottom ribs. They are well supplied with blood via the renal artery and renal vein. Urine made in the kidney collects in the renal pelvis within the kidney, then flows down the ureter to the bladder where it is stored until voided. From the bladder, the urine flows to the outside via the urethra, (which in the male also serves as part of the reproductory tract).


The kidney is composed of an outer layer, the cortex, and an inner core, the medulla. The kidney consists of repeating units (tubules) called nephrons. The “tops” of the nephrons make up or are in the cortex, while their long tubule portions make up the medulla. To the right is a diagram of an individual nephron. Each nephron has a closely associated blood supply. Blood comes in at the glomerulus and transfers water and solutes to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule. In the proximal tubule, water and some “good” molecules are absorbed back into the body, while a few other, unwanted molecules/ions are added to the urine. Then, the filtrate goes down the loop of Henle (in the medulla) where more water is removed (back into the bloodstream) on the way “down”, but the “up” side is impervious to water. Some NaCl (salt) is removed from the filtrate at this point to adjust the amount in the fluid which surrounds the tubule. Capillaries wind around and exchange materials with the tubule. In the distal tubule, more water and some “good” solutes are removed from the urine, while some more unwanted molecules are put in. From there, the urine flows down a collecting duct which gathers urine from several nephrons. As the collecting duct goes back through the medulla, more water is removed from the urine. The collecting ducts eventually end up at the renal pelvis which collects the urine from all of them. The area where the collecting ducts enter the renal pelvis is a common area for formation of kidney stones, often giving them a “staghorn” shape.
(clipart edited from Corel Presentations 8)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary is one factor influencing urine production. ADH promotes water retention by the kidneys, and its secretion is regulated by a negative feedback loop involving blood water and salt balances. ADH helps the kidney tubules reabsorb water to concentrate the urine. When the blood water level is too high (when you’ve been drinking a lot of liquids), this acts as a negative feedback to inhibit the secretion of ADH so more water is released. Ethanol also inhibits secretion of ADH, so a person who consumes a lot of alcoholic beverages could excrete too much water (and maybe even become dehydrated). Many diuretics work by interfering with ADH production, thus increasing the volume of urine produced. These diuretic effects are one reason why a person drinking beer (alcohol) or coffee (caffeine) needs to urinate more frequently.
When a person’s kidneys cease functioning, due to illness or other causes, renal dialysis can be used on a short-term basis to filter the person’s blood. This is not a perfect process; it can’t do everything a person’s kidneys can. Typically a person is put on renal dialysis as a temporary measure to extend the person’s life until a kidney transplant can be found. While life-saving, this procedure is often very inconvenient and stressful for the person. It requires spending long periods of time, several days a week, hooked up to the dialysis machine: the person’s blood must actually pass into the dialysis machine so the wastes can be filtered out, and then the blood is returned to the person’s body. This, combined with symptoms caused by the renal failure (the inability of the person’s kidneys to function) often preclude working at a job to earn the money to pay for the treatment. People can get by with one kidney, and the closest tissue match for a kidney transplant is often a sibling. However, as one former student who was a kidney-transplant recipient pointed out, even kidney transplants don’t last “forever”. Besides the constant workings of the person’s immune system to reject this foreign tissue, whatever disease caused the problem in the first place will probably eventually also affect the transplanted kidney. Since the same donor can’t provide another new kidney, this may mean going back on dialysis and hoping a matching donor (accident victim) can be found before it’s too late.
Some diseases and disorders of the excretory system include:
• Nephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli, due to a number of possible causes, including things like strep throat. Symptoms include bloody urine, scant urine output, and edema (swelling/puffliness). Another, more severe form, is due to an autoimmune attack on the glomeruli. Other types of nephritis affect the tubules.
• Nephrosis also affects the glomeruli, and is characterized by excretion of abnormally large amounts of protein (often causing “foamy” urine) and generalized edema (water retension/swelling) throughout the whole body, especially noted as “puffy” eyelids. Because these people’s kidneys often do not handle sodium properly, a low-salt diet is usually prescribed. My younger brother developed nephrosis at age 4, and to control it, had to stay on a no-added-salt diet and take prednisone on a regular basis from then until age 16, at which point, his body finally responded positively to being weaned off the drug.
• Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli. If there is an obstruction of the urethra, catheterization may be needed, but as a general rule, catheterization in cases of UTI is contraindicated because it can actually introduce pathogens and make the infection worse. Women tend to acquire more urethral and bladder infections than men, perhaps because the opening of the urethra is closer to the anus. The way a woman cleans the area after relieving herself can influence her chances of contracting a UTI and/or vaginal infection. When parents are toilet-training toddlers, the common mistake is to wipe young girls from back to front. The toddlers get used to this feeling, and when they start to wipe themselves, they also go from back to front. This technique wipes bacteria from the anal area towards or into the ends of the vagina and urethra. Rather, young girls should be trained to wipe from front to back, and women who were not trained this way should make a conscious effort to change their habits.
• There are a variety of types of kidney stones depending on what conditions caused their formation. According to the Merck Manual, in the United States, about 80% are calcium oxalate (and/or other calcium-based stones), 5% are uric acid, 2% are cystine, and the other 13% due to magnesium ammonium phosphate or other causes. Stones may be microscopic to large “staghorn” stones that fill the whole renal pelvis. Often, as the stone is passed down the ureter, the person experiences much pain, and the affected kidney may even temporarily become nonfunctional. Stones may be broken up by ultrasound so they can be passed more easily, but large stones may have to be surgically removed. If possible, the underlying cause of the stone(s) should be identified and alleviated. For example, calcium stones might be caused by anything from a parathyroid gland problem to too much vitamin D to some forms of cancer to a genetic predisposition.
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More information on colchicine
If you had gout, would you rather, as something to try first, modify your diet or take this substance?
• From a chemical dictionary: Colchicine is an alkaloid extracted from Colchicum autumnale, the autumn crocus. It is used in medicine and to induce chromsome doubling in plants. It is very poisonous.
• From an organic chemistry text: “Colchicine has the interesting property of arresting cell mitosis at the stage just after division of the chromosomes. It dissolves the spindles connecting the chromosomes, resulting in a cell with double the original number of chromosomes.” It is used to produce polyploid plants.
• From a cell physiology book: “Colchicine causes the chromosomes to contract to the metaphase condition in which sister chromatids are spread and are more readily observed than in controls, but it prevents anaphase,” and “Colchicine apparently inhibits cell division by disorganizing the mitotic spindle, without stopping growth or duplication of various organelles in the cell. Chromosomes duplicate themselves, but the spindle fibers that form are disoriented, resulting in polyploidy which, in some species, persists even after the poison is removed” (which means that whatever cells manage to survive the treatment will have more than usual chromosomes).
• From a cytology book: In cytology, colchicine is commonly used to arrest cells in metaphase of mitosis because that’s when it’s easiest to get a chromosome count. Colchicine disrupts the spindle apparatus. Colchicine treatment results in retention of most of the cells in metaphase, and if cells are treated for an extended time, divisions of the chromosomes continue without divisions of the cell, so polyploids develop. The fundamental action of colchicine seems to be the prevention of the proper assembly of protein molecules into the microtubules of the cytoskeleton and mitotic spindle. “Gout symptoms result from the phagocytic action of leucocytes on urate crystals deposited in the joints. Colchicine may relieve this condition by interfering with the microtubules on which phagocytic activity depends” (Which means that the WBCs that normally engulf and kill foreign invaders cannot do so because their internal cytoskeleton is all messed up: this would mean that the person’s immune system and ability to fight off infections would also be reduced. However, the uric acid crystals are still there, and have not been dealt with.). Colchicine binds to the protein subunits (that make up microtubules) inhibiting their assembly into the microtubules.
• From the Merck Manual: Colchicine is also used to treat famial Mediterranean fever. It is thought that “possibly it prevents normal cellular response to inflammation” (which means that they think that it supresses proper immune function (phagocytosis).
• From an old PDR: Colchicine can produce a temporary leucopenia, a decrease in the number of WBCs, that is followed by leucocytosis, an increase in the number of WBCs. Colchicine alters neuromuscular function, intensifies gastrointensinal activity by neurogenic stimulation (thus can cause problems, especially if someone also has an ulcer), causes a number of other NS symptoms, depresses the respiratory center, constricts the blood vessels, causes hypertension, and lowers body temperature, to list a few of its effects. The reference cautions against its use during pregnancy because of its effect of stopping mitosis. In some animals it has been found to be teratogenic (it causes birth defects) and the possibility of such effects in humans has been reported! Colchicine has been reported to adversely affect spermatogenesis in animals. “Since colchicine is an established mutagen, its ability to act as an carcinogen must be suspected.” Colchicine may cause loss of hair (which makes sense if it’s inhibiting the cell division needed for hair to grow).
Concurrently administered drugs that promote urate (uric acid) excretion by the kidneys can actually cause the formation of uric acid kidney stones, especially if the urine is acidic.
• From an herb book entry on Colchicum autumnale: “Most of the ancient and medieval writers [herbalists], except the Arabic physicians, considered Colchicum too poisonous to use. . .” Its use for gout can be traced to research done in the 1700s.
THE FORMATION OF URINE
FIGURATION, REABSORPTION, AND SECRETION
Every one of us depends on the process of urination for the removal of certain waste products in the body. The production of urine is vital to the health of the body. Most of us have probably never thought of urine as valuable, but we could not survive if we did not produce it and eliminate it. Urine is composed of water, certain electrolytes, and various waste products that are filtered out of the blood system. Remember, as the blood flows through the body, wastes resulting from the metabolism of foodstuffs in the body cells are deposited into the bloodstream, and this waste must be disposed of in some way. A major part of this "cleaning" of the blood takes place in the kidneys and, in particular, in the nephrons, where the blood is filtered to produce the urine. Both kidneys in the body carry out this essential blood cleansing function. Normally, about 20% of the total blood pumped by the heart each minute will enter the kidneys to undergo filtration. This is called the filtration fraction. The rest of the blood (about 80%) does not go through the filtering portion of the kidney, but flows through the rest of the body to service the various nutritional, respiratory, and other needs that are always present.
For the production of urine, the kidneys do not simply pick waste products out of the bloodstream and send them along for final disposal. The kidneys' 2 million or more nephrons (about a million in each kidney) form urine by three precisely regulated processes: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
Filtration
Figure 3. Urine formation takes place in the nephron.


Urine formation begins with the process of filtration, which goes on continually in the renal corpuscles (Figure 3). As blood courses through the glomeruli, much of its fluid, containing both useful chemicals and dissolved waste materials, soaks out of the blood through the membranes (by osmosis and diffusion) where it is filtered and then flows into the Bowman's capsule. This process is called glomerular filtration. The water, waste products, salt, glucose, and other chemicals that have been filtered out of the blood are known collectively as glomerular filtrate. The glomerular filtrate consists primarily of water, excess salts (primarily Na+ and K+), glucose, and a waste product of the body called urea. Urea is formed in the body to eliminate the very toxic ammonia products that are formed in the liver from amino acids. Since humans cannot excrete ammonia, it is converted to the less dangerous urea and then filtered out of the blood. Urea is the most abundant of the waste products that must be excreted by the kidneys. The total rate of glomerular filtration (glomerular filtration rate or GFR) for the whole body (i.e., for all of the nephrons in both kidneys) is normally about 125 ml per minute. That is, about 125 ml of water and dissolved substances are filtered out of the blood per minute. The following calculations may help you visualize how enormous this volume is. The GFR per hour is:
125 ml/min X 60min/hr= 7500 ml/hr.
The GFR per day is:
7500 ml/hr X 24 hr/day = 180,000 ml/day or 180 liters/day.
Now, see if you can calculate how many gallons of water we are talking about. Here are some conversion factors for you to consider: 1 quart = 960 ml, 1 liter = 1000 ml, 4 quarts. = 1 gallon. Remember to cancel units and you will have no problem.
Now, what we have just calculated is the amount of water that is removed from the blood each day - about 180 liters per day. (Actually it also includes other chemicals, but the vast majority of this glomerular filtrate is water.) Imagine the size of a 2-liter bottle of soda pop. About 90 of those bottles equals 180 liters! Obviously no one ever excretes anywhere near 180 liters of urine per day! Why? Because almost all of the estimated 43 gallons of water (which is about the same as 180 liters - did you get the right answer?) that leaves the blood by glomerular filtration, the first process in urine formation, returns to the blood by the second process - reabsorption.
Reabsorption
Reabsorption, by definition, is the movement of substances out of the renal tubules back into the blood capillaries located around the tubules (called the peritubular copillaries). Substances reabsorbed are water, glucose and other nutrients, and sodium (Na+) and other ions. Reabsorption begins in the proximal convoluted tubules and continues in the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules (Figure 3). Let's discuss for a moment the three main substances that are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
Large amounts of water - more than 178 liters per day - are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream from the proximal tubules because the physical forces acting on the water in these tubules actually push most of the water back into the blood capillaries. In other words, about 99% of the 180 liters of water that leave the blood each day by glomerular filtration returns to the blood from the proximal tubule through the process of passive reabsorption.
The nutrient glucose (blood sugar) is entirely reabsorbed back into the blood from the proximal tubules. In fact, it is actively transported out of the tubules and into the peritubular capillary blood. None of this valuable nutrient is wasted by being lost in the urine. However, even when the kidneys are operating at peak efficiency, the nephrons can reabsorb only so much sugar and water. Their limitations are dramatically illustrated in cases of diabetes mellitus, a disease which causes the amount of sugar in the blood to rise far above normal. As already mentioned, in ordinary cases all the glucose that seeps out through the glomeruli into the tubules is reabsorbed into the blood. But if too much is present, the tubules reach the limit of their ability to pass the sugar back into the bloodstream, and the tubules retain some of it. It is then carried along in the urine, often providing a doctor with her first clue that a patient has diabetes mellitus. The value of urine as a diagnostic aid has been known to the world of medicine since as far back as the time of Hippocrates. Since then, examination of the urine has become a regular procedure for physicians as well as scientists.
Sodium ions (Na+) and other ions are only partially reabsorbed from the renal tubules back into the blood. For the most part, however, sodium ions are actively transported back into blood from the tubular fluid. The amount of sodium reabsorbed varies from time to time; it depends largely on how much salt we take in from the foods that we eat. (As stated earlier, sodium is a major component of table salt, known chemically as sodium chloride.) As a person increases the amount of salt taken into the body, that person's kidneys decrease the amount of sodium reabsorption back into the blood. That is, more sodium is retained in the tubules. Therefore, the amount of salt excreted in the urine increases. The process works the other way as well. The less the salt intake, the greater the amount of sodium reabsorbed back into the blood, and the amount of salt excreted in the urine decreases.
Secretion
Now, let's describe the third important process in the formation of urine. Secretion is the process by which substances move into the distal and collecting tubules from blood in the capillaries around these tubules (Figure 3). In this respect, secretion is reabsorption in reverse. Whereas reabsorption moves substances out of the tubules and into the blood, secretion moves substances out of the blood and into the tubules where they mix with the water and other wastes and are converted into urine. These substances are secreted through either an active transport mechanism or as a result of diffusion across the membrane. Substances secreted are hydrogen ions (H+), potassium ions (K+), ammonia (NH3), and certain drugs. Kidney tubule secretion plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's acid-base balance, another example of an important body function that the kidney participates in

Sunday, August 8, 2010

BEATING HEART SURGERY

LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA

LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA
Locomotion:
*Protozoans are not stremelined to minimize the pressure drag
*Viscous drag is dueto the water molecules attached to the surface
*pressure drag is dueto the difference of pressure between two ends
*Viscous drag is more important for protozoans because of their small size
*Streamlined body has more surface area dueto which more water molecule are attached to surface
Which causes more viscous drag
*The locomotary organells that are usefull for locomotion and feedin in protozoa ---- pseudopodia and
cilia
*Psedopodia are present in the classes rhizopodea and actinopodea of the super class sarcodina
*The flagellate having pseudopodia is ---- Mastigamoeba
*Blunt finger like ,tubular pseudopodia with ecto and endoplasms are---Lobopodia (Amoeba &
Entamoeba)
*Slender filamentous pseudopodia with pointed tips , tapering base to tip ,having branches (sometimes) without the formation of networks and with only ecto plasm are----Filopodia(Euglypha & Lecithium)
*Filamentous ,branched pseudopodia with networks,feeding as primary function ,locomotion as
secondary function are----Reticulopodia or rhizopodia or myxopodia (Foraminiferans---Elphidium &
Globigerina)
*Filamentous pseudopodia in protozoans ------ Reticulopodia & Filopodia
*Filamentous pseudopodia that do not form networks---- Filopodia
*Filamentous pseudopodia that form networks ----- Reticulopodia
*Fine needle like pseudopodia radiating from the surface of the body with central axial rod (which is surrounded by granular and adhesive cytoplasm) and with food collection as primary function are---Axopodia or Actinopodia(Heliozoans –actinosphaerium and Actinophrys , Radiolarians—Collozoum)
*Axoneme(long stiff axial filament ) of flagellum arises from---- basal granule
*Basal granule is derived from---centriole
NUMBER OF FLAGELLA IN DIFFERENT MASTIGOPHORANS
*One ----- Trypanosoma
*Two ------ Euglena and Ceratium
* Four ------- Trichomonas
*Four pairs ------- Giardia
*Many ------ Trichonympha
*The total number of microtubules in flagellum (9+2) is ----- 20
*The total number of microtubules in basal granule is --- 27
*The total number of microtubules in both flagellum and basal granules collectively is--- 29
*The peripheral doublets are surrounded by an outer membranous sheath called ---protoplasmic sheath
* Protoplasmic sheath is the extension of ----- plasmamembrane
*The lateral appendages are ---- Flimmers (5nm thick ,solid) , Mastigonemes (20nm thick ,tubular)
*Basal granule is a cyllindrical body formed by the ----- 9 peripheral triplets
*basal body is connected to theplasma membrane or nucleus by---1 or more rootlets or microtubules or
both
*The structures that can pull the flagellum or cilium or change their orientation are---rootlets
*Unlike pantonematic flagellum pantacronematic flagellum has --- Terminal Filament
*Unlike acronematic flagellum pantonematic flagellum has --- Lateral Appendages
*Unlike anematic flagellum acronematic flagellum has --- Terminalfilament
*Euglena and Astasia ----- stichonematic flagellum
*Peranema and Monas ----- Pantonematic flagellum
*Chlamydomonas and Polytoma ---- acronematic flagellum
*Urcoelus ----- Pantacronematic flagellum
*Chilomonas and Cryptomonas ----- Anematic flagellum
*Holotrich (cilia all over the body , primitive organisms) --- Paramecium
*Peritrich (cilia confined to specific regions ,advanced organisms) --Vorticella (have peristomial cilia only)
*Kinety --- Longitudinal row of kinetosome +Kinetodesmos(kinetodesmal fibrils)+kinetodesmata
*Motorium is located at -- Cytopharynx
*the movement of cilia is controlled and co-ordinated by -- Neuromotor system
*Undular movement is possible by -- Flagella
*Pendular movement is possible by -- Cilia
*Undulating membranes and cirri (compound ciliary organelles) are formed by -- Cilia
*Flagella and Cilia -- Undulopodia (Hyman) as they cause progression by beating
*a flagellum pushes the fluid medium at right angles to the surface of its attachment
*The sites for ATPase activity ---- Dynein arms
*Undulations from base to tip --- Pushing force(propeller of a boat)
*undulations from tip to base ---- Pulling force(propeller of a aeroplane)
*if the flagellum bends to one side and shows a wave like movement from the base to tip,the organism moves laterally in the opposite direction.
*When the undulations are spiral ,they cause rotation of the organism in the opposite direction which is called gyration.
Reproduction:
*The cilate that can perform longitudinal binaryfission is -- Vorticella
*cytostome is funnel like and cytopharynx(gullet) is flask like
*A photoreceptor that is associated with flagellum in Euglena ---Paraflagellar body
*The structure close to cytopharynx is --- Stigma
*Binaryfission also occurs in ---Encysted form
*after the completion of the longitudinal binaryfission in euglena the two old flagella are retained by one daughter individual and the two new flagella are formed afresh in another daughter individual.
*oralgroove in Paramecium ---- Vestibule +buccal cavity
*during transverse binaryfission in Paramecium oralgroove dissapers at the beginning and reappears after karyokinesis.
*Proter retains the cytopharynx of the parent and opisth forms a new one.