1.Describe the human phase of Plasmodium vivax
LIFECYCLE OF PLASMODIUM IN MAN
PLASMODIUM LIFECYCLE IN MAN ;1.Plasmodium completes its life cycle in two hosts
2.female anopheles mosquito is definitive host , man is intermediate host
3.In man asexual lifecycle occurs
4.In man plasmodium completes its lifecycle in two stages. They are
a)Exoerythrocytic stage b) Erythrocytic stage
EXOERYTHROCYTIC STAGE: In this stage two generations are formed. They are preerythrocytic generations and exoerythrocytic generations
PREERYTHROCYTIC GENERATIONS :
1.When mosquito bite humanbeing the sporozoite stage of plasmodium enters into man
2.The sporozoite stage is infective stage of plasmodium to man
3.Sporozoites enters into liver cells from blood stream
4.After entering into the liver cells sporozoites are transformed into trophozoites in livercells
5.The nucleus of the trophozoite undergoes multiplications to become schizont
6.Within 8 days,cytoplasm divides and large number of cryptozoites are released into the liver sinusoids
7.These cryptozoites may either enter into RBC or into another livercells.
1.When the cryptozoites enter into livercells ,they transform into trophozoites in livercells
2.The nucleus of the trophozoite divides several times and become a multinucleate schizont
3.Then cytoplasm divides and large number of metacryptozoites are released into the sinusoids of liver
4.Two types of metacryptozoits are present ,they are a)Macrometacryptozoites and b)Micrometacryptozoites.
5.Macrometacryptomerozoite enter into fresh liver cells and micrometacryptozoites into RBC
ERYTHROCYTIC STAGE (GOLGI CYCLE) :1.Micrometacryptozoites or cryptozoites enter into RBC and become trophozoites
2.The vacuole of the trophozoite increases in size and pushes the cytoplasm and nucleus to periphery
3.In this stage the parasite appears like a ring hence it is called signet ring stage
4.After signet ring stage plasmodium develops pseudopodia and appears like amoeba , hence this stage is called amoeboid stage
5.Later amoeboid stage develops into schizont
6.Again in this schizont multiplications take place and merozoites are formed
7.Merozoites are released from RBC along with haemozoin granules.
8.Due to this haemozoin granules the symptoms of malaria are seen
2. Describe the mosquito of Plasmodium vivax.
1.After repeated erythrocytic lifecycles in man the merozoite become inactive and transformed into gametocytes.
2.There are two types of gametocytes ,a)Macrogametocytes
3.Macrogametocytes are called female gametocytes and Microgametocytes are called male gametocytes.
4.The further development of the gametocytes needs female anopheles mosquito.
5.When the female anopheles mosquito bites a malaria patient the male and female gametocytes enter into the crop of mosquito
6.Male gametocytes develop into male gametes and female gametocytes into female gametes.
7.The male and female gametes are fused to form a zygote
8.Intially the zygote is stationary later it becomes motile
9.The motile zygote is called ookinete
10.The ookinete enters into the crop wall of mosquito
11. In the crop wall it gets encysted
12.The encysted zygote is called oocyst
13.In oocyst it enlarges and undergoes multiplications
14.Due to multiplications sporoblasts are formed
15.The cyst containing sporoblasts is called sporocysts
16.Sporoblasts develop into sporozoites
17.Sporozoites released from sporocyst and reach salivary glands
18.When this mosquito with sporozoites in its salivary glands bites a man ,the sporozoites enter into man and life cycle stars in man
3.Describe the life cycle of Taenia sodium.
TAENIA SOLIUM LIFE CYCLE
LIFECYCLE OF TAENIA IN HUMAN :
1.Fertilization takes place in ootype
2.After fertilization zygote is formed
3.Zygote ,vitelline cell and vitelline shell are together called capsule
4.Many capsules roll into uterus
5.Rest of the embryonic development takes place in the uterus
6.Zygote is divided into two unequal cells called megamere and embryonic cell
7.Embryoinc cell divides into mesomeres and micromeres
8.Mesomeres develop into inner embryonic membrane
9.Megameres develop into outer embryonic membrane
10.Micromeres form hexacanth
11.Inner embryonic membrane ,outerembryonic membrane and hexacanth are together called hexacanth larva or oncosphere
12.Gravidproglatids containing oncospheres pass out through faeces
13.Oncosphere is the infective stage to pig
LIFECYCLE OF TAENIA IN PIG;1.When pig consumes the faeces containing gravidproglatids ,oncospheres in gravid proglatids enter into the stomach of pig
2.The outer and inner embryonic membranes are dissolved in the intestine and hexacanth larvae are released
3.Hexacanth larvae are attached to the wall of the intestine
4.Hexacanth larvae penetrate the intestine wall and reach the liver
5.Hexacanth larvae reach the heart from the liver
6.From heart hexacanth reach the skeletal muscles of pig
7.In skeletal muscles hexacanth loses its hooks and develop into cysticercus cellulosae.
8.The pork containing cysticercus cellulosae is called measly pork
9.When man consumes measly pork cysticercus enters into man and develops into an adult
10.The infective stage of taenia to man is cycticercus cellulose
4.Describe the digestive system in Pheretima with the help of diagram
ANS: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM;Alimentary canal and associated digestive glands are collectively called digestive system.
ALIMENTARY CANAL ; It consists of Mouth , buccal cavity, pharynx , oesophagus,gizzard,stomach,intestine .
Mouth :-It is located in the first segment. Due to the presence of the mouth the first segment is called “peristomium”. It leads into buccal cavity.
Buccal cavity :-It extends up to the middle of the yhird segment.It leads into Pharynx.
Pharynx :-It extends between middle of the third segment and end of the fourth segment.it has pharyngeal bulb which secretes proteolytic enzyme.Pharynx leads into oesophagus.
Oesophagus :-It extends between fifth segment to eighth segment.
Gizzard :- Oesophagus is modified into gizzard in eighth segment. It is muscular and grinds the food, hence it is called grinding mill.It leads into stomach.
Stomach :- It extends between ninth and fourteenth segment . It also secretes proteolytic enzymes.It leads into intestine.
Intestine :-It extends between fifteenth segment and last segment. It has three parts :a)Pre-typhlosolar region b) Typhlosolar region c)Post-typhlosolar region.
a)Pre-typhlosolar region:- Typhlosole is absent
b) Typhlosolar region:- Typhlosole is present
c)Post-typhlosolar region;- Typhlosole is absent , it is also called rectum. It opens to the out side through anus.
Anus :- It is present in the last segment.
5.Explain the blood circulation in the first thirteen segments in Phertima with a suitable diagram
ANS:- CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN FIRST 13 SEGMENTS:-
BLOOD CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN THE FIRST 13 SEGMENTS OF PHERETIMA
ARRENGEMENT OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE FIRST 13 SEGMENTS OF PHERETIMA:-
In the first 13 segments of Pheretima the following bloodvessels are present
I)Longitudinal blood vessels II) The hearts
III)The anterior loops IV)Ring vessels
I) Longitudinal blood vessels:
There are 5 longitudinal trunks in Pheretima in its first 13 segments,they are :
1.One Dorsal blood vessel 2.One Ventral blood vessel
3.Two lateral oesophageal blood vessels
4.One supra oesophageal blood vessel
1. Dorsal blood vessel:
a.It is the largest blood vessel
b.It is muscular
c.It is contractile
d.It is valvular
e.Blood flows from posterior to anterior
f.It acts as a distributing blood vessel in the first 13 segments
g.It distributes blood to parts of alimentary canal from buccal cavity to stomach and pharyngeal nephridia
2.Ventral blood vessel:-
a.It is the longest blood vessel
b.It is nonmuscular
c.It is noncontractile
d.It is nonvalvular
e.Blood flows from anterior to posterior
f.It is a chief distributing blood vessel
g.It distributes blood to bodywall,septa,integumentary nephridia,repeoductive organs in the first 13 segments
3. Lateral oesophageal blood vessels:
a.One pair of lateral oesophageal blood vessels present either side of alimentary canal in the first 13 segments
b.These blood vessels collect blood from bodywall,septa,integumentary nephridia,repeoductive organs in the first 13 segments
4. SUPRA OESOPHAGEAL BLOOD VESSEL:-
a.It is located between 9 th segment to 13 th segment
b.It collects blood from gizzard ,stomach and lateral oesophageal blood vessel
c.From supra oesophageal blood vessel blood flows into ventral blood vessel through lateral oesophageal hearts.
II) THE HEARTS :-
a.There are four pairs of hearts in Pheretima
b.The first two pairs are located in the 7 th and the 9 th segments
c.Remaining two pairs are located in the 12 th and the 13 th segments
III)THE ANTERIOR LOOPS :
There are two pairs of anterior loops present in the 10 th and the 11 th segment between supraoesophageal blood vessel and lateral oesophageal blood vessel
IV)RING VESSELS :They are present in the 10th,11th,12th and 13th segments between between supraoesophageal blood vessel and lateral oesophageal blood vessel
6.Give an account of the reproductive organs in Pheretima. Draw a neat labeled diagram of the reproductive system.
Ans: MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM1. TESTIES:
i. There are 2 pairs of testes.
ii. One pair in 10th and one pair in11th segments.
iii. Each pair is enclosed by testis sac.
iv. They produce spermatogonia.
2. TESTIS SAC:
i. The testis sac is present in 10th and 11th segments.
ii. Testis sac of 10th and 11th segements encloses the testis present in the same segment and also spermiducal funnels.
iii. The testis sac of the 11th segment is large and enclosed the testis spermiducal funnel and seminal vesicals of that segment on each side.
3. SEMINAL VESICLES:
i. Two pairs of seminal vesicles lie laterally in the 11th and 12th segments.
ii. They are also called septal pouches.
iii. In these vesicles spermatogonia develops in to spermatozoa.
4. SPERMIDUCAL FUNNELS:
i. Two pairs of ciliated spermiducal funnels are present in 10th and 11th segments.
5. VASA DEFERENTIA:
i. Each spermiducal funnel leads in to a vasa deferens.
ii. Two vasa deferentia of each side run closely side by side as a slender duct along the inner surface of the body wall from 12th to 18th segments.
6. PROSTATE GLANDS:
i. a pair of large solid white structure irregular in out line.
ii. they lie on each side of the gut from 16 or 17 segment to the 20 or 21 segment.
7. MALE GENITAL OPENINGS
iii. Two genital openings on the ventral side of the 18th segment.
iv. Male genital opening is a group of 3 openings,a large prostatic opening and two small opening of the two vasa deferentia.
8. ACCESORY GLANDS:
i. Two pairs of accessory glands are present in the 17th and 19th segments.
9.GENITAL PAPILLAE :
i. Two pairs of genital papillaeare present in the 17th and 19th segments.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMOVARIES:
i. A pair of minute whitish masses attached to the posterior face of the septum between the 12th and 13th segments.
i. oviducts are two short tubes each one with a broad oviducal funnel .
ii. A single female genital aperture is present on the ventral side of the 14th segment.
i. Spermathecae are four pairs.
ii. present on 6th 7th 8th 9th segments one pair in each segment.
iii. Spermatheca has a pear shaped ampulla and a small diverticulum on its inner side.
iv. The sperms received during copulation are stored in the diverticulum.
v. The ampulla provides the nutritive material for the spermatozoa.
7.Discuss the excretion in Pheretima with the help of diagrams. Ans.The excretory system in Pheretima consist of three kinds of nephridia. They are ;
1) Pharyngeal nephridia 2)Integumentary nephridia 3) Septal nephridia
1) Pharyngeal nephridia:
i.They are located in the 4th ,5th and 6th segments
ii.The are also called tufted nephridia
iii.They do not have nephrostome , hence they are called closed nephridia
iv.They open into alimentary canal , hence they are called enteronephric nephridia
i.They are located in all segments except first two segments
ii.they are also called micronephridia
iii.Each segment consists of 200 to 250 micro nephridia
iv.In clitellum region there are 2000 to 2500 micronephridia present , hence it is called forest
v.They do not have nephrostome , hence they are called closed nephridia
vi.They open to the out side by means of nephridio pore , hence they are called
3) Septal nephridia
i.They start from the intersegmental septum between 15/16 segments
ii.They are arranged in four rows
iii.Each row consists of 20 to 25 nephridia
iv.There are 80 to 100 septal nephridia present in each segment.
v.Septal nephridia have nephrostome , hence they are called open nephridia
vi.Septal nephridia open into alimentary canal , hence they are called “enteronephric
8.Describe the blood circulation in Pheretima with a schematic representation in the intestine-region
Blood circulation in the intestine region
The blood vessels that are present in the intestine region are :
1. Longitudinal blood vessels
2. Commissural vessels
3. Intestinal blood plexus
4. Dorso intestinal blood vessels.
1. LONGITUDINAL BLOOD VESSELS
i. Dorsal blood vessel:
Collecting blood vessel
It is present along the mid dorsal line above the gut.
ii. Ventral blood vessel:
Chief distributing vessel
It gives a pair of ventro integumentary blood vessel and a single ventro-intestinal blood vessel in each segment.
iii. Sub neural blood vessel:
Non valvular collecting blood vessel
Blood flows from the anterior to the posterior end
2. COMMISSURAL BLOOD VESSELS:
A pair of commissural blood vessel is present in each segment from 14th and they connect the sub-neural blood vessel to the dorsal blood vessel.
These are collecting and distributing vessels.
3. DORSO INTESTINAL BLOOD VESSELS:
2 pairs of DORSO INTESTINAL BLOOD VESSELS are present
Vessels collect the blood from the intestinal wall and open in to the doral blood vessel
Blood in these vessels contain digested food materials
4. INTISTINAL BLOOD PLEXUS:
It consists of a network of capillaries in the intestine one internal and one external.
Internal plexus serves to absorb nutrients from the gut.
External plexus receives blood from the ventro intestinal & the septo intestinal blood vessels and is connected to the internal plexus.
1. Describe the process of longitudinal binary fission in Euglena
LONGITUDINAL BINARYFISSION IN EUGLENA
*Binaryfission :- The division of parent individual into two daughter individuals is called binary fission
Longitudinal Binaryfission In Euglena :
*It occurs in favourable conditions
*First karyokinesis takes place
*During karyokinesis nucleus is divided by mitosis
*Cytokinesis follows karyokinesis
*During cytokinesis a longitudinal furrow is formed
*The longitudinal furrow extends to posterior end to divide the euglena into two daughter individuals
*Longitudinal binaryfission in euglena is also called symmetrogenis binaryfission
2. Describe the process of tranverse binary fission in paramecium.
Ans: *Binaryfission :- The division of parent individual into two daughter individuals is called binary fission
Tranverse binary fission in paramecium:
*It occurs in favourable conditions
*First karyokinesis takes place
*During karyokinesis micro nucleus is divided by mitosis and macro nucleus is divided by amitosis
*During cytokinesis a constriction is formed in the middle of the body
*The constriction deepens and divides the animal in to two daughter individuals
*The daughter individual that is formed from anterior region is called proter and that is formed from posterior region is called opisth.
*The transverse binary fission in Paramecium is called “homothetogenic binary fission”
3.Describe the different types of pseudopodia in protozoans.
There are four different types of pseudopodia in protozoans ,they are :-
1)Lobopodia :- They are blunt and finger like pseudopodia
Eg: Amoeba and Entamoeba
2)Filopodia :- They are slender and filamentous like pseudopodia
3)Reticulopodia :- They are filamentous and branched pseudopodia , they are also called rhizopodia or myxopodia Eg : Elphidium
4)Axopodia :- They are fine needle like pseudopodia radiating from the surface of the body
Eg : Collozoum
4.Describe the different types of flagella in protozoans.
DIFFEREN TYPES OF FLAGELLA IN PROTOZOANS
There are five different types of flagellae in protozoans ,they are :-
1. Stichonematic : One row of lateral appendages are present Eg : Euglena
2. Pantonematic : Two or more rows of lateral appendages are present Eg : Monas
3. Acronematic : Lateral appengages are absent , a terminal filament is present
Eg : Chlamidomonas
4. Pantacronematic : Two or more rows of lateral appendages and terminal filament are present
Eg : Urceolus
5. Anematic : Lateral appendages and terminal filament are absent
Eg : Chilomonas
5.Explain the sol-gel theory of amoeboid locomotion
AMOEBOID LOCOMOTION: SOL-GEL THEORY
*It is also called change of viscosity theory
*It was advocated by Hyman
*It was confirned by Pantin and Mast
*Amoeba attaches to the substratum
*Ectoplasm is formed as hyaline cap at advancing end
*A point of weaknes is formed behind hyaline cap at advancing end
*Plasmasol flows in to advancing end
*Plasma sol is converted in to plasmagel at advancing end by losing water , this zone is called zone of gelation
*Plasmagel gel flows back to uroid end
*Plasma gel is converted into plasma sol by gaining water at uroid end , this zone is called zone of solation
*The rate of gelation and solation is same
*As plasma sol flows towards advancing end the pesupodium extends further
*Amoeba moves on the direction of pseudopodium
6.Describe the physiology of digestion in cockroach
1.Cockroach is omnivorous animal
2. It collects its food by the help of its mouth parts
3.Mandible are useful for chewing
4.The food is mixed with saliva during chewing
5.The chewed food is swallowed
6.The swallowed food reaches the crop
7. Most of the digestion takes place in the crop
8. The partly digested food then passes in to gizzard
9. The partly digested food is ground in the gizzard and filtered in to the mid gut.
10. In the mid gut the rest of the digestion is completed.
Action of enzymes on food in the procccess of digestion in cockroach
a)Amylase digests the starches in to disachharides
b)Sucrase digests the sucrose in to glucose and fructose
c)Maltase digests maltose into glucose
d)Proteases digest proteins into amino acids
e)Lipase digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol
7.Describe the structure of trachea of cockroach.
1.From each spiracle several horizontal trachea run inside
2.They are cephalic , abdominal and commissure tracheal trunks
The structure of the trachea:
1.Thwe wall of the trachea is made of 3 layers .
2.The outer basement membrane, middle epithelium and inner cuticle called intima
3.The intima is produced into spiral thickenings called taenidia.
4.In the taenidiaprotein/chitin layer is differentiated as exocuticle
5.The taenidia keep the trachea always open.
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